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预测策略在初中英语听力教学中的应用研究

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1. Introduction


1.1 Research Background
Since the economic in our country developed rapidly, our interaction with othercountries are becoming more and more frequently than before. When we are cooperating withothers or in the academic exchanges, we tend to use face-to-face interaction, which requiresus to have higher listening and speaking abilities. Statistics investigated by W. M. Rivers(1978) suggest that in verbal communication, people spend 45 percent on listening, 30 percenton speaking, 16 percent on reading and 9 percent on writing. Listening also complements andpromotes the other three basic skills. That means, listening plays an important part in ourdaily life.As one of the four basic skills of language learning, listening plays a crucial role inEnglish teaching and learning. New Curriculum Standard (NCS) has a requirement forEnglish listening of junior high school students that they “can understand the teachers’statements of the subjects they are familiar with and participate in the discussions”. Thedemand on English listening ability is high because the improvement of students’ listeningability is of great importance to the development of their English ability. Therefore, listeningis the basis of learning a language well. Besides, English listening occupied a high proportionin English examination whether in middle school or in universities. For these reasons, it isnecessary for teachers to pay more attention on English listening instruction.However, for a long period of time, listening instruction has been always a weak pointin English teaching in the middle schools in our country. Among the factors that cause thesituation, the method students used in learning listening can be a vital one. Thus, how to helpthe students’ to develop their English listening ability effectively is always of a great concernof English teachers and researchers.
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1.2 The Significance and Purpose of the Thesis
With the development of the research on the theory of second language acquisition,both the theoretical researchers and the teachers have realized that language learning successdepends largely on whether the students can make full use of all kinds of learning resourcesand learning opportunities. These abilities refer to the students’ abilities of using languagelearning strategies (Oxford, 1990). If language learning strategies are applied properly, theycan promote the internalization storage, extraction and using of second language or foreignlanguage knowledge (Berne, 2004).Many western cognitive psychologists classified the learning strategies into threecategories: metacognitve strategies, cognitive strategies and social/affective strategies(O’Malley & Chamot, 1990). Metacognitive strategies refer to the action that the languagelearners taken in order to promote a successful completion of a learning activity, such asplanning, monitoring, and evaluation etc. It is the way that learners manage themselves.Cognitive strategies have a direct relationship with the learning tasks. They involve dealingwith the input information, including repetition, summarizing, inferring, elaboration, and soon. Social/affective strategies refer that in order to promote the completion of a learning task,the learner interacts with others, or controls his emotion, eliminates tension and anxiety.Listening strategies are an integral part of language learning strategies. Thus, listeningstrategies can also be classified into the same three categories. Studies on listening strategiesoriginated from the studies on learning strategies and flourished with the subjects such assecond language acquisition, psycholinguisitcs, etc. In the late 80s and early 90s, there was anunprecedented research climax. The subjects of these researches were mainly adults wholearnt English as a second language. The types of listening strategies they researched weremainly cognitive strategies and metacognitive strategies. The instruments they used weremostly questionnaires.
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2. Literature Review


2.1 Studies on Listening Comprehension
In human communication activities, listening, which is the most basic form, is thecommunication skill to understand and receive the oral message. Generally speaking, listeningis the ability to recognize and understand others’ speech. In the broad way, listening is theability of listening and distinguishing the sound. The narrow sense of listening refers tolistening comprehension ability. That is, in the process of listening and distinguishing thesound, generalize, analyze, synthesize and memorize the content, in order to achieve a kind ofability to process information. In the process of learning language, listening is an importantmeans that helps to absorb and consolidate language knowledge and cultivate the ability ofspeaking, reading and writing language. Listening comprehension is not only a pure languageinformation decoding process, but also a combined process of decoding and rebuildingmeaning. In other words, listening comprehension is not a passive activity, but a complexactive process. In this process, the listener must participate in the activities such asdistinguishing the sound, understanding the implications of the stress and intonation, andcom{代写论文就找www.haolw.com好论文网}prehending vocabulary and grammatical structure and so on. Then he needs to integratethe above activities and make corresponding explanation according to the context and socialcultural background.

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